According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, most of the world's fisheries are either fully exploited or overexploited. Increases in global consumption of seafood will need to be met by aquaculture.

Victoria has been involved in aquaculture for over twenty years and manages this work under the Fisheries Act (Victoria) 1995, which provides for the management, development and promotion of an ecologically sustainable and viable aquaculture industry. Victorian aquaculture goes on in a variety of offshore, coastal and inland facilities and produces trout, abalone, blue mussel, aquarium finfish, Murray cod, barramundi and yabby.